ZVENYHORODKA JEWISH CEMETERY
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Collapse panel 1. Cemetery Location & Access
 
Cemetery ID:  10280
Cemetery Name:  Zvenyhorodka Jewish Cemetery
Location Vis-À-Vis Above Named Town:   
Address 1:  Engels Str.
Address 2: 
Latitude:  49.066233 
Longitude:  30.959572 
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Accessed By:   
Details Of Access:  The cemetery is located on Engels Str. In order to reach the cemetery, one needs to drive along the field road, which crosses the gardens and fields.
Area Map: 
Cemetery Opening Hours:  open all the time
Currently In Use:  No
 
Collapse panel 2. Information on the Jewish Community
 
City/Town/Village Name:  Zvenyhorodka
Alternative Names:  Zvenigorodka (Yiddish Transliteration), Zvenigorodka - Звенигородка (Russian), Zwienigorodka (Polish)
Country:  Ukraine
Region:  Zvenyhorodskyi Raion - Cherkasy Oblast
Latitude:  49.066233 
Longitude: 30.959572 
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Current General Population:  10000 - 25000
Current Jewish Population:  10 - 1000
Jews Of This Town Buried Elsewhere:   
Date Earliest Known Jewish Community:  1765
Date Last Known Jewish Community:   
Jewish Population Before World War II:  1000 - 5000
Noteworthy Historical Events Involving
Or Affecting The Jewish Community:  In 1765, there is mention of a single Jewish tenant living in Zvenyhorodka among 134 homes in the village. In 1750, the Jewish population had suffered from pogroms by Haydamak’s gangs. According to the population census, in the mid-19th century, there were 2,341 Jews in Zvenyhorodka, 4,620 Orthodox Christians, 271 Roman Catholics and 47 Old Believers. Trade and industry were in the hands of the Jews who also founded a tobacco factory and a plant for making candles. There were 11 Christian merchants but 35 from the Jewish community. Many Jews worked in the fields during harvesting. In the late 19th century, there were five synagogues, a mikve and a printing house, which belonged to Nuhim Yakovlevich Zotulovsky. From 1892, the community rabbi and head of the rabbinical court was Joseph Halpern, in the 1890s, while the county rabbi was Tsal Shmulevich Dobrov. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Jewish population of Zvenyhorodka increased to about six thousand (40%). In 1910, seven synagogues operated, there was a Talmud Torah, three Jewish schools for boys, a Jewish hospital and a benevolent society, as well as the Jewish cemetery.
Zvenyhorodka suffered from three pogroms. In 1918, as a result of the first pogrom, 27 Jews were killed and 50 wounded. The second attack took place in August 1919. The pogrom was organized by units of the Volunteer Army. In January 1920, the troops of Ataman Tuz vandalized Zvenyhorodka. In 1922, a Jewish self-defense unit consisting of fifty people operated in the town. In 1921, an office of the Jewish Section was opened in Zvenyhorodka. (the organization’s goal was to spread communist ideology among the national minorities). There was a Zionist organisation in the town and in September 1922, a group of Zionists were arrested. According to the Russian Jewish Encyclopedia, in 1926, the Jewish population of Zvenyhorodka numbered 6,584 people (36,5%). Around 30 Jewish families founded a collective farm in the town. Two primary schools in Yiddish and a vocational school were established. In 1927, a school for needy children was opened and an orphanage operated. In 1931, there was also an agricultural school with training in Yiddish.
In 1939, 1,957 Jews lived in Zvenyhorodka. (14%). On July 29, 1941 the town was occupied by German troops. In August - September 1941, around 100 Jewish men were shot. On November 3, 1941, an “open” ghetto was set up, with three to four families in each house. The ghetto was located between Shevchenko avenue, Comintern street, Zhdanov, Pionerskaya and Karl Liebknecht streets. Jews from the neighbourhood were gathered in Zvenyhorodka, and on June 18, 1942, about 1,375 Jews were shot and around one hundred sent to a camp in Iskrennoe village.&nbs...
Jews From This Town Are Also Known
To Be Buried In:   
Jews From This Town Are Also Known
To Be Buried Comments: 
Jewish Community Denomination/s:   
Notable Natives Of The Local Jewish Community:  Nuhim Y. Zotulovsky - an owner of a printing house.
Joseph Halpern - a rabbi and the head of the rabbinic court.
Tsal Shmulevich Dobrov – a county rabbi.
Chaika Semenovna Watenberg-Ostrovskaya (1901, Zvenyhorodka-1952 Moscow) - a translator, was accused during the trial of the leaders of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee and shot on August 12, 1952.
Nathan (Agmon) Bystritsky - (1896, Zvenyhorodka - 1978, Tel-Aviv) – an Israeli writer.
Horatio Osipovich (Naftali-Hertz) Ginsburg (1833, Zvenyhorodka - 1909, St. Petersburg) - a banker, social activist and philanthropist.
Boris Eltsin (1875, Zvenyhorodka-1937) – a Russian revolutionary.
Jacob Samoilovich (1889, Zvenyhorodka -1941, Kiev) – a musician, violinist and teacher.
Additional Comments: 
 
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Collapse panel 3. Location, Markers, Access & Security
 
Description Of Cemetery Location:  agricultural/fields
Situated:  on flat land
Isolation Detail:  isolated
Additional Details: 
Road / Entrance Sign:  No
Language Of Sign:   
Sign Text:   
Photo Of Sign: 
Identifiable Features On Sign:   
The Sign Mentions:   
Cemetery Entrance:   
Inscription On:   
Inscription Text: 
Cemetery Boundary:  a wooden fence
Additional Comments: 
Access:   
The Cemetery Is Visited:   
Visited By:   
Current Owner Of Cemetery:  Local Municipality
 
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Collapse panel 4. Current Use / Condition Status / Cemetery Specific Characteristics
Collapse panel 5. Tombstones, Memorial Markers & Structures
Collapse panel 6. Burials Register
Collapse panel 7. Ecological Decay & Vandalism
Collapse panel 8. Maintenance & Restoration
Collapse panel 9. Protected Status
Collapse panel 10. Condition Report
Collapse panel 11. Details of Data Sources
Collapse panel 12. Additional Information
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